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    Azoospermia is a common condition where a man does not have any sperm in his ejaculate. It results in the inability to reproduce and can occur due to various reasons. There are two types of this condition due to the different factors causing a lack of sperm.

    • Obstructive Azoospermia: This is caused by a blockage that is preventing the sperm from exiting the testes.
    • Non-obstructive Azoospermia: This is due to the low production or non-occurrence of sperms in the testes.

    Both issues can be accurately diagnosed and rectified through surgical procedures like PESA and TESA. Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA) and Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA) are techniques that are used to extract sperm from a man if he has azoospermia of either kind.

    PESA is the ideal procedure for obstructive azoospermia, where a fine needle is passed into the epididymis to extract the sperm in the event of a blockage. TESA, on the other hand, is suitable for diagnosing non-obstructive azoospermia. A fine needle is directly inserted into the testes to extract a small number of seminiferous tubules; the extracted tubules are then sent to the laboratory to be searched for sperm.

    The number of sperms obtained through these procedures are very small and are thus done in tandem with a process known as ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection). The process entails the extracted sperms to be directly injected into the eggs for fertilisation after their collection during IVF. These fertilised eggs are incubated in the laboratory for a few days before the embryo is transferred into the uterus.

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