Author: Dr. Kathyaini V S

Qualification: MBBS, DGO, Fellowship in Reproductive Medicine

When a couple cannot conceive within one year of unprotected intercourse, it is defined as infertility. There can be several reasons for infertility in males and females, such as ovulation disorder, endometriosis, infection in the fallopian tube, uterine and cervical complications, low sperm production and other male factor infertility. The major causes of infertility can be malnutrition, a recurrent infection that causes the blockage of fallopian tubes and pelvic tuberculosis.
These days, doctors have adopted laparoscopy for infertility treatment and diagnosis. This treatment involves a laparoscope to examine the reproductive organs. This method helps in determining the abnormalities and issues that cause infertility. Doctors recommend laparoscopy in case of unexplained pelvic pain.
laparoscopic surgery for infertility treatment

A laparoscopy is a minimal-invasive technique that gives a panoramic and magnified view of the pelvic organs. It allows the doctor to perform the surgery while making the infertility diagnosis. Laparoscopy is proven effective in improving fertility through surgery on ovaries, pelvic, uterus and fallopian tubes. Usually, doctors recommend laparoscopy only when the reasons for infertility are unknown.

Causes of infertility

There are several reasons for infertility. Some of them are:

  • Ovulation disorder: A woman suffering from ovulation disorder produces fewer eggs than average women reducing the chances of fertilisation and conception.
  • Scars from surgery: The cervical or pelvic surgery can scar and damage other reproductive organs such as fallopian tubes or ovaries, causing infertility.
  • Fibroids: The fibroids are benign, preventing the fertilised egg from getting attached to the uterine wall or womb and blocking the fallopian tubes.
  • Endometriosis is a medical condition where the endometrial tissue grows outside the uterus wall and other reproductive organs, resulting in pelvic pain.
  • PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease): A bacterial infection in the upper female genital tract, causing damage and scarring on the fallopian tubes.

Methods for diagnosis of infertility

To diagnose the reasons for infertility, doctors use various methods, such as:

  • Ovulation testing
  • HSG (hysterosalpingography)
  • Ovarian reserve testing
  • Laparoscopy for fertility
  • Imaging

Laparoscopy – Procedure

A surgical procedure in which the surgeon makes a small incision to get a view inside the abdomen and pelvis is called laparoscopy, also known as minimally invasive surgery. A small tube-like, flexible laparoscope structure is inserted through a small incision into the abdomen and pelvis. The laparoscope has a small light and camera attached to it as it relays the images of the stomach and pelvis into a television monitor.

Like any other surgery, the doctors will ask you to fast for 8 hours before the surgery in the laparoscopy procedure for infertility. The images shown on the monitor help doctors identify abnormalities such as pelvis adhesion, endometriosis, cysts, fibroids or scarring.

Advantages of laparoscopy in treating infertility

  • Laparoscopy is the best diagnosis method if you have scarring or blockage in the fallopian tubes. It helps the doctor view and opens the blockage of the tubes to enable conception.
  • Laparoscopy can also diagnose scarring in the uterus, endometriosis, or other abnormalities present in the reproductive organs.
  • With the help of laparoscopy, the doctors can identify the pelvic pathology that generally other methods cannot remember, resulting in recurrent failures of IVF.
  • The doctors use laparoscopy to remove the pelvic adhesions and endometrial tissues to increase the chances of conceiving.
  • In some cases where infertility reasons are unidentified, laparoscopy can be used for infertility evaluation.
  • As compared to other surgeries, laparoscopy is less invasive. Once the surgery is done, you can return to your routine within two days. Apart from that, it is less painful and has minimum blood loss.

Risks associated with laparoscopy

Every procedure has its pros and cons. Laparoscopy has some minor risks associated with it. Such as:

  • It can sometimes cause abdominal inflammation or infection in the area where an incision is made. Therefore, it is necessary to take proper care of the incision after the surgery
  • Insertion of the laparoscope can cause damage to the nerves around the incision.


A patient should connect with a medical professional and seek medical advice if they notice the following signs and symptoms –

  • High fever and chills
  • Continuous vomiting
  • Pain and swelling in one leg
  • Increasing abdominal pain
  • Pus and foul smell from the incision
  • Redness and pain at the surgical site

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